Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program (OASDI)

What is the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program (OASDI)?

The federal program for Social Security, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI) is the official name for Social Security in the United States. The OASDI tax on your payroll funds this comprehensive federal benefits program that provides benefits to retirees and people with disabilities, and their spouses, children, and survivors. The goal of the program is to partially replace income lost due to old age, the death of a qualifying spouse or former spouse, or disability.

Key takeaways

  • The federal OASDI program is the official name for Social Security.
  • Provides benefits for retirees and people with disabilities.
  • The program is funded by OASDI taxes, also known as FICA payroll taxes.
  • The amount of a person’s monthly payment is based on their earnings during their working years.

Understand the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program (OASDI)

The US Social Security program is the largest such system in the world and is also the largest expenditure in the federal budget, estimated to cost $ 1.2 trillion in 2021.Nearly nine out of 10 people over the age of 65 receive Social Security benefits, according to the Social Security Administration (SSA).Social Security calculates your Average Indexed Monthly Income (AIME) for the 35 years you earned the most.

The program was introduced through the Social Security Act, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 14, 1935, when the American economy was in the depths of the Great Depression.The program has grown tremendously over the years, along with the population and economy of the US In 1940, some 222,000 people received a median monthly benefit of $ 22.60.As of December 2020, that number was nearly 70 million. For 2021, the average monthly benefit is $ 1,543.

OASDI Payroll Tax

Payments to qualifying individuals are funded through OASDI taxes, which are a payroll tax collected by the government known as FICA taxes (short for Federal Insurance Contributions Act) and SECA taxes (short for Federal Insurance Contributions Act). Contributions for Independent Workers). In 2021, the Social Security tax rate is 6.2% for salaried employees and 12.4% for the self-employed.

This income is held in two trust funds:

  • Retirement and Survivors Insurance (ASI) Trust Fund for Retirement
  • Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund for People with Disabilities

These trust funds pay the profits and invest the rest of the income they collect.

There is a limit to the annual earnings on which you pay Social Security taxes. In 2021, the maximum taxable earnings are $ 142,800.

OASDI program criteria

The OASDI program provides payments to people who meet certain criteria. For old-age payments, money is paid to qualifying individuals age 62 and older. The total retirement age depends on the date of birth and is 67 for everyone born in 1960 or later.Qualified individuals who wait until age 70 (but no later) to collect benefits may collect higher maximum benefits due to delays in retirement credits.

Payments are calculated on the wages of people of working age. Survivor payments are made to the surviving spouses or eligible children of deceased or retired workers.Disability payments are made to eligible individuals who cannot meaningfully engage in gainful activity and who meet additional criteria.

To qualify for retirement benefits, a worker must be fully insured. A worker can obtain full insurance by accumulating coverage credits (called quarters). Credits or quarters are accumulated based on the covered payment earned during a specified period. In 2021, each worker receives a quarter of coverage for every $ 1,470 earned. The dollar amount is indexed every few years for inflation. A worker can earn up to four credits or a quarter of coverage per year, and 40 credits are required to qualify for benefits.

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